Essays are submitted only at They should be written in Word (page size A4 with 2.5cm margins at each side of the text and line spacing at least 1.15). The text should be fully justified and the main text font size should be 11pt or 12pt. The pages must be numbered. The author(s) name(s) - and for the ERASMUS students the Institution and the country they come from as well - should appear on the first page of the essay. The title of the essay should also appear on the first page. A simple guide to avoid plagiarism is found here.


Citation and references:

In-text citations should be used instead of footnotes, and the reference list should be formatted following the APA (7th edition) style.
Example: (Castoriades, 1981, pp. 45–49)


Guidelines for references:

The complete list of references should appear at the end of the text. Please, write the references data according to the following patterns:

  • Books by only one author:

    Gans, H. (1999). Popular culture and high culture: An analysis and evaluation of taste. Basic Books.

  • Books by several authors:

    Bourdieu, P. & Haacke, H. (1995): Free exchange. Stanford University Press.

  • Papers published in journals or chapters in collective works:

    Negus, K. (2002). The work of cultural intermediaries and the enduring distance between production and consumption. Cultural Studies, 16(4), 501–515. h​t​t​p​s​:​/​/​d​o​i​.​o​r​g​/​1​0​.​1​0​8​0​/​0​9​5​0​2​3​8​0​2​1​0​1​3​9​0​8​9

    Kawasaki, K. (1996). Art and cultural policy in Japan. In M. Rosanne (Ed.), Art and Business. An International Perspective on Sponsorship (pp. 195–202). Praeger.

  • Web page references:
    Family and first name(s) of the author(s), title of the text, and complete URL. If no author is indicated in the web page, the name of the institution, organization etc. that owns the web page should be used instead.

    Smiers, J. (n.d.). Copyrights: A choice of no choice for artists and third world countries; the public domain is loosing anyway. h​t​t​p​:​/​/​w​w​w​.​c​o​n​s​t​a​n​t​v​z​w​.​c​o​m​/​c​o​p​y​.​c​u​l​t​/​c​o​p​y​r​i​g​h​t​s​.​p​d​f

    UNESCO (1950): Records of the General Conference of UNESCO - Florence 1950. Resolutions. h​t​t​p​:​/​/​u​n​e​s​d​o​c​.​u​n​e​s​c​o​.​o​r​g​/​i​m​a​g​e​s​/​0​0​1​1​/​0​0​1​1​4​5​/​1​1​4​5​8​9​e​.​p​d​f

    Attention: You have to indicate the exact page numbers in case the reference file is in PDF or Word format (i.e. in case there is page numbering in the original file).



Footnotes are used only to give detailed explanation or additional information that does not need to appear in the main text. Please do not use them for references. Footnote numbers usually appear in the text as exponents. Please, write the footnote text in the footer of the corresponding pages. Footnote font size usually is smaller than the main text.


ATTENTION: The following errors affect your essay evaluation.

  1. Absence of citations; references that have not been cited in the text or citations not included in the references at the end of the text. It is necessary to cite and refer the details of all the sources used in your essay. Please, do not use sources without detailed references. You should also avoid using references not cited in the text.
  2. Disagreement between the cited references in the text and the list of references at the end of the text. The literature you refer to must have been used in your text.
  3. Confusion about the origin of the discourse (ideas, arguments etc.). It is necessary to distinguish clearly your own from other people's ideas and arguments, and make clear when you are citing other people's ideas in your own words. Passages used verbatim should be enclosed in quotation marks and accompanied by the corresponding reference(s). A simple guide to avoid plagiarism is found here.
  4. Unordered list of references. The reference list must be in alphabetical order using the names of the authors in a single list. There is no need to have different lists by type of source (e.g. articles, books, webpages). You may use a detailed guide for bibliographic references with examples for all types of sources, such as those found here or here.