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Maria Manolika, Alexandros Baltzis

International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 2019
First published (online): July 23
DOI: 10.1002/nvsm.1640

 

Abstract

Although there is a robust research framework describing several motivational factors explaining cultural consumption behavior, most of these research endeavors do not rely on specific theories. Therefore, based on three psychological approaches and previous research, this study aims to identify the main motives of people consuming various cultural goods (i.e., books, recorded music, historical monuments, and festivals). To further extend current studies, this research suggests a hierarchical structure of consumer needs and investigates the motivational differences between cultural consumption behavior and demographic variables (gender and age).

A structural equation modeling was employed to confirm the structure of the consumers’ drives indicating that six motives (entertainment, escapism, cultural exploration, learning/curiosity, family togetherness, and socialization) can sufficiently describe individuals’ needs. The above dimensions can be sorted into three higher‐order types of motivation, which are the emotional, cognitive, and social ones. The results also revealed that there are significant differences in motivation depending on cultural participation, as well as demographic variables.

The current findings are important not only for academics, but also for who need to develop effective marketing strategies, increase consumer satisfaction, and meet their economic objectives.

 

Maria Manolika, Alexandros Baltzis, Antonis Gardikiotis

Empirical Studies of the Arts, 2019
First published (online): August 12
DOI: 10.1177/0276237419868952

 

Abstract

Considerable research on music psychology indicates correlations between musical preferences and individual differences in personality, between the various uses of music and personality traits, and between musical preferences and personal values. However, the association between personal values and the multiple ways in which music is used has not been considered yet.

To investigate this issue, 400 participants completed a self-report questionnaire comprising the uses of music, personality traits, and personal values, as well as provided their demographic details.

The hierarchical regression analyses revealed that both personality and personal values along with gender contribute differentially to predicting the different ways in which music is used. Overall, these findings suggest that the understanding of the ways in which listeners experience music can be improved by contemplating various individual difference variables.

 

Alexandros Baltzis, Nikolaos Tsigilis

(Un)Making Europe: Capitalism, Solidarities, Subjectivities
13th Conference of the European Sociological Association
European Sociological Association
Hellenic Sociological Society
Panteion University, Athens
Harokopio University, Athens
Athens, August 29 - September 1, 2017

 

Abstract

The paper presents some results of an original survey in a sample of 591 visual artists in Greece, focusing on their living and working conditions. This sample represents 10% of the total members of the Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece (margin of error ±3.82%, 95% confidence interval). The questionnaire includes over 250 variables embracing a wide range of issues, including standard indicators of material deprivation, as well as questions comparing the situation before and after the introduction of the austerity programmes. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Thessaloniki Center of Contemporary Art of the State Museum of Contemporary Art and supported by the Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece. Technical support was provided by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. This survey is the first of its kind carried out in the country. The survey is part of a wider attempt to study cultural work in Greece and it is based on previous exploratory study with focus groups about the working conditions of visual artists and film makers (see Baltzis & Pantazis, 2016).

To comply with the peculiarities of the visual artists, an overall index of economic strain was calculated enhancing the standard material deprivation inventory of indicators with the enforced inability to afford an atelier (Cronbach’s Alpha = .893). Analysis of variance showed that respondents answer consistently about their income, their living conditions, and the changes in their working conditions. This consistency allowed the use of the variables as reliable indicators of the consequences of the austerity policies for the visual artists. The overall index of economic strain was used to analyze variables comparing the living and working conditions of visual artists before and after the introduction of the austerity policies. The findings show that visual artists in Greece face severe material deprivation to a greater extend (68.8%) compared to the general population (22.2%). Therefore, extended deprivation of the material conditions required to work as a visual artist, was found in Greece.

Based on the standard European Socio-Economic Classification (ESeC 5), modified by researchers at the National Centre for Social Research to comply with the Greek society, the social origin of the visual artists was examined. The findings suggest that the intergenerational mobility, which represents a tendency of democratization in the field of the arts, does not make it easier to cope with extended economic strain and material deprivation. They also show that social inequality is intensified among visual artists, as those who face economic strain and material deprivation to a greater extent, originate from lower socio-economic strata.

Finally, the findings suggest that further research on the working and living conditions is required in other artistic sectors as well, while the issues raised, require consideration by cultural and economic policy decision makers.

 

Alexandros Baltzis

Journal Polyphonia (Polyphony), issue 33-34/2019, pp. 28-41
Athens: “Koultoura” Editions

The article is a reviewed and extended version of a paper presented at the Conference
Music – Aesthetics – Society
(in memory of O. Psychopedis)
School of Music Studies, University of Athens
Athens, November 23, 2018

 

Abstract

This article presents a brief account of the new conditions where the production, circulation, and consumption of cultural goods take place. New opportunities for creators, intermediaries, and the public emerged, as significant changes in the ways of producing culture have been brought about by several factors. These include the development of digital technologies and the internet; the new international division of labor in the realm of cultural industries of a globalized economy; the proliferation of networking and “inter-networking” of both the authors and the public.

At the same time, these interdependent developments outline a context quite different from the one experienced and analyzed by Adorno in his critique of culture industry. This article focuses on these changes as it aims to raise several questions regarding Adorno’s critique in an attempt to explore and highlight what remains crucial and important from his point of view. In addition, it clarifies some of the widespread misrepresentations of his views that make his approach too superficial.

 

 

Alexandros Baltzis, Nikolaos Tsigilis

The Industrialization of Creativity and its Limits: Value, Self-expression and the Economy of Culture in Times of Crisis
International conference
National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow
(St. Petersburg Branch and Faculty of Communication, Media and Design)
St. Petersburg, June 23-24, 2017

 

Abstract

The paper presents some results of an original survey in a sample of 591 visual artists in Greece, focusing on their living and working conditions. This sample represents 10% of the total members of the Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece (margin of error ±3.82%, 95% confidence interval). The questionnaire includes over 250 variables embracing a wide range of issues, including standard indicators of material deprivation, as well as questions comparing the situation before and after the introduction of the austerity programmes. The research was carried out in collaboration with the Thessaloniki Center of Contemporary Art of the State Museum of Contemporary Art and supported by the Chamber of Fine Arts of Greece. Technical support was provided by the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. This survey is the first of its kind carried out in the country. The survey is part of a wider attempt to study cultural work in Greece and it is based on previous exploratory study with focus groups about the working conditions of visual artists and film makers (see Baltzis & Pantazis, 2016).

The paper outlines the occupational profile of the visual artists in Greece which does not differ significantly from that described in the case of other countries, studied for example by Ball, Pollard, & Stanley, Benhamou, Heinich, Hesmondhalgh, Menger, and others. It focuses, however, on the contrast before and after 2012, the year when the effects of the austerity policies became evident in Greece. The respondents compared the situation before and after 2012 considering 16 indicators of a wide variety of aspects related with the working conditions of the visual artists. Only 2%-10% of the respondents answered that the conditions have improved, depending on the indicator. The analysis showed significant difference between the two periods and only 7.4% of the respondents expressed high and very high degree of optimism about the future of the visual arts in Greece. The differentiation of the answers to the 16 indicators were analyzed considering the high rates of material deprivation found among participants, the income levels and the variables detecting whether they work in a second occupation.

The findings outline some of the negative effects of the austerity policies not only on how the visual artists experience the current conditions, but also on the future of the cultural work in Greece. And the latter is not perceived to be very bright.